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The Hamburg passenger list records and indexes have been microfilmed and are available at the Family History Library. They are listed in the Place Search of the catalog under:. Le Havre. The only lists available for the French port of Le Havre are lists of crews and passengers on commercial cargo vessels. Passenger vessels are not included. A few German emigrants are included in these records, but most Germans who sailed from Le Havre are not recorded.

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These lists are not indexed. The Family History Library has filmed the Le Havre commercial cargo vessel passenger lists for the years to The film numbers are listed in the Place Search of the catalog under:. The library has only the passenger lists of emigrants who sailed from Antwerp in This year is only a small percentage of the total.

Many German emigrants sailed from this port. The following is an index to the Antwerp passenger lists:. Hall, Charles M. The Antwerp Emigration Index. FamilySearch Catalog book Ref The Family History Library has copies of passenger lists for the port of Rotterdam.

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However, most German travel through Dutch ports was before Pre Philadelphia port arrivals include many Germans who left via Dutch ports see Strassburger and Hinke's book, listed later in this section. Only a few Germans appear on these lists, which are alphabetical for intervals of one to five years. Passports became important in Germany during the 19th century as a control measure. Before that a passport was a form of recommendation.

A letter given to the traveler made his passage within and outside of German territories easier, depending on the influence the issuer had. Passports were both status symbol for uninterrupted travel and legal documentation for members belonging to fringe groups. Mandatory passports were required only in times of crises, when there were epidemics and political or military conflicts. Such documents were restricted to time and space. Passport guidelines were established in France in to control migrations.

Such documents were limited, mostly allowing people to travel certain routes. Such guidelines did not really change until The restrictions were implemented for political and military reasons. Conscripted men could be watched better and travelers could be kept away from political and strategically important places, for instance, the capital.


Thus potential danger caused by spies and other agitators could be prevented. This system was copied by other European nations. In German territories, the influx of refugees from revolutionary France, lead to stiffer measures. The foreign office watched emigrants much more closely and placed them in designated areas. During the Napoleonic occupation identification laws were worked out and assimilated to the French model.

If someone wanted to move more than 8 miles away from his home, he needed identification on his person at all times. Students who identified themselves by their matriculation papers were no longer to do so since Members of the police would overlook the identification process. People of other German territories as well as other non-Germans had no right to entry or stay. Disregard for guidelines were prosecuted. The affected could find themselves in prison or could plead their case at the next higher administration level.

The measures for issuance of identification and control had somewhat shifted from former intentions in as much that now crime and movements of fringe groups came under closer scrutiny.

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Beggars, vagabonds, out of work servants, quacks, peddlers etc. Before each travel which would entail departure from immediate surroundings a passport had to be issued by the local mayor or the judge of the regional administration. Such papers were valid for the length of the journey or for one year.

Identification had to be shown to each official who wanted to see them.

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Document controls could occur in the street, the next big town or at the first overnight stay. In Prussia a passport entailed a detailed description of a person. People of the upper classes even were issued identification cards which allowed them to bypass control, thus avoiding long lines for instance at the railway stations in Berlin.

Most members of the German Bund had this privilege in place by By regular pass controls were eliminated, but it became mandatory to carry an official document while travelling. In it was determined that requirement to carry a passport between Bavaria, Hannover, Saxony and Wuerttemberg was no longer necessary. Passport regulations between and the s in German territories were in the hands of police officers.

They were allowed access to guest books in inns, they could trace the exact travel route by looking at visas and remarks on the travel documents. People were sometimes willfully subjected to examinations, long periods of waiting or even corporal punishment.

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The execution of the passport laws was not evenly handled. Lax officials as well as stringent adhering to regulations have been reported by travelers. Secret emigration was more an issue in German territories closest to the French border. Emigrants with enough cash at hand were issued entry on the spot, thus also supporting the ship companies operating out of French harbors. Each state or city had its own laws regarding passports. In many cases, the applications for passports and the supporting documentation have been preserved.

These records often give information such as the emigrant's name, birth date or age, birthplace, occupation, last residence, verification of identity, and physical description. Residents of Hamburg had to apply for a passport to emigrate. A few emigrants from other parts of Germany stopped in Hamburg long enough to become residents. If they were residents, they might be in the passport records. The Hamburg passport applications have been microfilmed for the years to and include indexes.

The Family History Library has indexed the Stuttgart-area passport records for the years to This index usually gives the emigrant's hometown and destination. Most names are from the early s. To find the original passport and visa record microfilm numbers, look in the Place Search of the FamilySearch Catalog under:. Germans had to apply for permission to emigrate from most areas. The Family History Library has these application records for several states and cities, including Baden, Rheinland, the Pfalz, and Zwickau.

They list the emigrant's birthplace, residence, assets, and indebtedness. These records begin in the mids, with most from the s.

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Most districts also have handwritten indexes for the mids. Six published volumes of indexes are available, which so far cover 35 of the 64 districts:. Schenk, Trudy, and Ruth Froelke.